Drugs References


A mental disease called psychosis manifests as aberrations in attitudes, thoughts, and behavior. The ability to accurately perceive reality is severely damaged in severe mental disorders. Hallucinations, illusions, delusions, abnormalities in thought processes and thinking abilities, as well as odd conduct, such as aggressive or catatonic, are symptoms of this disease.

Paliperidone Trademarks: Invega, Invega Trinza, Invega Sustenna.

Schizophrenia is one type of psychosis, which are serious mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is a clinical illness of several extremely unsettling psychopathological states that affect thought processes, emotional perception, behavior, and conduct. Compared to women, men are more likely than women to develop schizophrenia. Stress is one of a caused of neurological condition known as schizophrenia that is characterized by thinking abnormalities.
There are six distinct varieties of schizophrenia: paranoid schizophrenia, disorganized [hebernic] schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, unspecified schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia, and simple schizophrenia.
Nearly all acute psychotic episodes in schizophrenia patients require treatment with antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotics are divided into two categories: conventional antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics (second generation). The adverse effects that develop differ between the two groups. Appropriate usage of antipsychotics is highly crucial to maintain medication therapy and can alter the patient's willingness to accept and continue pharmacological treatment.
In primary care settings, hospitals, and private practice, irrational drug usage, such as the inappropriate indication, dosage, substance, and patient, is frequently observed. Inadequate dosages, patients, drug selection, and indications can all contribute to the unsuccessful treatment of schizophrenia.
Antipsychotics of the first generation, which are more common, have worse side effects but are more effective in reducing positive symptoms. Second generation antipsychotics with less adverse effects are known as atypical antipsychotics. Paliperidone is an illustration of an atypical antipsychotic. According to reports, these antipsychotics work better in reversing negative symptoms and cognitive deterioration. The most often used antipsychotics are atypical and combination antipsychotics. Atypical antipsychotics are more useful than typical antipsychotics, in part because they have less adverse effects and work to treat both positive and negative symptoms.
The dopaminergic and serotonergic systems are closely related to one another. Dopamine, which is currently the more popular choice due to its relative safety, is modulated by serotonin.


- Emsley, R., & Kilian, S. (2018). Efficacy and Safety Profile of Paliperidone Palmitate Injections in The Management of Patients with Schizophrenia: An Evidence-Based Review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, pp 205–223.
- Mauri M., et al. (2017). Paliperidone for The Treatment of Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders - A Drug Safety Evaluation. Expert Opinion Drug Safety, 16(3): pp 365-379.
- National Intitute of Health (2020). MedlinePlus. Paliperidone.
- National Intitute of Health (2020). MedlinePlus. Paliperidone Injection.
- Mayo Clinic (2020). Paliperidone (Oral Route).
- Multum, C. Drugs (2020). Paliperidone.
- WebMD (2020). Paliperidone ER.

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